Tuesday 1 October 2024 Calendar with holidays, observances and special days
: Career Holidays (Recognition Holidays)
, Environmental Dates
, Food holidays
, Health Calendar
, Pet and Animal Holidays
, Smart events
, US Holidays
, United Nations Holidays
, Worldwide Holidays
, Children’s Days
, Chocolate holidays
, Company Holidays
, Dog Holidays and Celebrations
, El Salvador
, Father’s Days
, Professional Engineers Day
, South Africa
, Sports and Fitness Special Days
, Sri Lanka
, United Kingdom
, Unusual Holidays (Weird and Funny Holidays)
, Women’s Days
Holidays and observances
- Animal Welfare Week (First Full Week of October)
- Architect's Day in Mexico
- Armed Forces Day in South Korea
- Balloons Around The World Day
- Beginning of the United States' Fiscal Year
- CD Player Day
- Cameroon Unification Day
- Change A Light Day (First Sunday of October)
- Children's Day in El Salvador, Guatemala, Sri Lanka
- Cocoa Day in Venezuela
- Coffee Day in El Salvador (Día de la caficultura)
- Commemoration of the death of the Prophet Muhammad and Imam Sadegh
- Day of Prosecutors in Azerbaijan
- Day of Territorial Defense of Ukraine (Celebrated on the first Sunday in October)
- Day of the Sea and Fishing Wealth in Argentina
- Ecuadorian Pasillo Day
- Father's Day in Luxembourg (first Sunday in October)
- Festival of San Verísimo in Alcubilla de Nogales
- Grandparents Day in Costa Rica (Between October 1 and 10)
- Grandparents Day in South Africa (First Sunday in October)
- Grandparents Day in United Kingdom (First Sunday in October)
- International Coffee Day (At a meeting on 3–7 March 2014, a decision was taken by the International Coffee Organization to launch the first official International Coffee Day in Milan as part of Expo 2015)
- International Gaucher Disease Day
- Junk Mail Awareness Week (Junk mail isn't just annoying. Take a day to think about that and maybe take some action - sign up for Do Not Mail lists, or post a note on your mailbox declaring it a junk mail-free zone)
- King Rama IV Memorial Day in Thailand
- Lincolnshire Day (United Kingdom)
- Mental Illness Awareness Week and Human papilloma virus Prevention Week in Canada (October 1 to 7)
- Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Day
- National Black Dog Day n US
- National Bullying Prevention Month in USA (At one point or another each of us has felt insecure, or stressed out, or alone)
- National Coffee Day in Japan and Sri Lanka
- National Fire Pup Day in US
- National Principals Month in USA (is officially recognized throughout the country with national and state resolutions supporting the event, as well as acknowledgements from U.S. senators and representatives and other government officials)
- National Pumpkin Spice Day in USA
- National Tree Day in Bolivia
- National Walk Your Dog Day in US
- National Walk Your Dog Week in US (First Week of October)
- Occupational Therapy Month and Rett Syndrome Awareness Month in Canada
- Official Day of the Most Beautiful Villages of Spain
- Pancasila Sanctity Day in Indonesia
- Peruvian Cocoa and Chocolate Day
- Peruvian Journalist's Day
- Recruiting Officer's Day in Chile
- Roche Holding Day
- Seasonal Change of Clothing in Japan (Koromogae)
- Siemens Day
- Teacher's Day (Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Ukraine; celebrated on the first Sunday of October)
- Teacher's Day in Kazakhstan (It is celebrated on the first Sunday in October)
- Teacher's Day in Uzbekistan
- Tuvalu Independence Day (celebrates the independence of Tuvalu from United Kingdom in 1978)
- World Cocoa and Chocolate Day
- World Vegetarian Day
- World Walking Day
- 1994 – Palau gains independence from the United Nations (trusteeship administered by the United States of America).
- 1989 – Denmark introduces the world's first legal modern same-sex civil union called "registered partnership".
- 1982 – Epcot opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
- 1982 – Sony launches the first consumer compact disc player (model CDP-101).
- 1979 – Pope John Paul II begins his first pastoral visit to the United States.
- 1979 – The United States returns sovereignty of the Panama Canal to Panama.
- 1978 – The Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party is founded.
- 1971 – The first brain-scan using x-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is performed at Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon, London.
- 1971 – Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida, United States.
- 1969 – Concorde breaks the sound barrier for the first time.
- 1966 – West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with eighteen fatalities and no survivors 5.5 miles south of Wemme, Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.
- 1962 – First broadcast of The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
- 1961 – The United States Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is formed, becoming the country's first centralized military espionage organization.
- 1957 – First appearance of In God we trust on U.S. paper currency.
- 1947 – The North American F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
- 1940 – The Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opens to traffic.
- 1937 – The Japanese city Handa is founded in Aichi Prefecture.
- 1928 – The Soviet Union introduces its First five-year plan.
- 1903 – Baseball: The Boston Americans play the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of the modern World Series.
- 1898 – The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.
- 1880 – First electric lamp factory is opened by Thomas Edison.
- 1861 – Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management is published, going on to sell 60,000 copies in its first year and remaining in print until the present day
- 1854 – The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American system of watch manufacturing.
- 1829 – South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; it will later separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
- 1791 – First session of the French Legislative Assembly.
- 1995 – Lauren Hill, American basketball player (d. 2015). Lauren Hill (or similar) is the name of:
- 1989 – Brie Larson, American actress. Brianne Sidonie Desaulniers (born October 1, 1989), known professionally as Brie Larson, is an American actress and filmmaker.
- 1984 – Beck Bennett, American actor and screenwriter. Christopher Beck Bennett (born October 1, 1984), professionally known as Beck Bennett, is an American actor, comedian, and writer who is a current cast member on Saturday Night Live, joining in 2013.
- 1984 – Matt Cain, American baseball player. Matthew Thomas Cain (born October 1, 1984), nicknamed The Horse, Big Daddy, and Big Sugar, is an American former professional baseball pitcher, who played 13 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the San Francisco Giants.
- 1981 – David Yelldell, German-American soccer player. David Yelldell (born October 1, 1981) is a retired American soccer player who played as a goalkeeper and currently serves as an assistant coach for Sonnenhof Großaspach.
- 1980 – Sarah Drew, American actress. April Kepner in the ABC medical drama series Grey's Anatomy (2009–2018).
- 1979 – Curtis Axel, American wrestler. Joseph Curtis Hennig (born October 1, 1979) is an American professional wrestler currently signed to WWE, where he performs on the SmackDown brand under the ring name Curtis Axel.
- 1979 – Rudi Johnson, American football player. Burudi Ali Johnson (born October 1, 1979) is a former American football running back who played eight seasons in the National Football League (NFL).
- 1979 – Ryan Pontbriand, American football player. He has the distinction of being the highest-drafted pure long snapper in the history of the NFL Draft.
- 1978 – Leticia Cline, American model and journalist. She is best known as a former interviewer for TNA Wrestling, Maxim Magazine, the reality show Beauty and the Geek and her Playboy magazine appearance in July 2008.
- 1978 – Nicole Atkins, American singer-songwriter. Atkins has been compared to Roy Orbison and singers from the Brill Building era.
- 1976 – Antonio Roybal, American painter and sculptor. Antonio Roybal (born October 1, 1976) is an American fine-art painter and sculptor from Santa Fe, New Mexico.
- 1973 – Christian Borle, American actor and singer. Borle originated the role of Emmett in Legally Blonde on Broadway, starred as Tom Levitt on the NBC musical-drama television series Smash, and starred as Marvin in the 2016 Broadway revival of Falsettos.
- 1969 – Joseph Patrick Moore, American musician, composer and producer. In 2003, he founded Blue Canoe Records the internet's first all-digital independent jazz label; he co-owns the label with Travis Prescott.
- 1969 – Ori Kaplan, Israeli-American saxophonist and producer. He has worked with many artists including Shotnez Tom Abbs, Firewater, Gogol Bordello, and Balkan Beat Box.
- 1969 – Zach Galifianakis, American actor, comedian, producer, and screenwriter. Zachary Knight Galifianakis (/ˌɡælɪfəˈnækɪs/; born October 1, 1969) is an American actor, comedian, and writer who came to prominence with his Comedy Central Presents special in 2001 and presented his own show called Late World with Zach on VH1 the following year.
- 1968 – Jay Underwood, American actor and pastor. He also portrayed the Human Torch in the 1994 unreleased film Fantastic Four.
- 1968 – Jon Guenther, American author and engineer. He is also creator of the Christian Pulp brand and genre.
- 1968 – Kevin Griffin, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer. Kevin Michael Griffin (born October 1, 1968) is an American singer, songwriter, and record producer.
- 1964 – Christopher Titus, American actor, producer, and screenwriter. Titus came to network audiences with the eponymous FOX show Titus, of which he was the star, executive producer and co-creator.
- 1963 – Mark McGwire, American baseball player and coach. Mark David McGwire (born October 1, 1963), nicknamed Big Mac, is an American former professional baseball first baseman.
- 1962 – Esai Morales, American actor. He also appeared in the PBS drama American Family and in the Showtime series Resurrection Blvd.
- 1961 – Rico Constantino, American wrestler and manager. He performed under the ring names Rico Costantino and Rico in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) from 2002 to 2004.
- 1959 – Brian P. Cleary, American author and poet. Cleary, (born October 1, 1959, in Lakewood, Ohio) is an American humorist, poet, United States patent holder, inventor and author.
- 1955 – Howard Hewett, American R&B singer-songwriter. Hewett rose to fame as the lead vocalist of the Grammy winning R&B/soul vocal group Shalamar.
- 1955 – Jeff Reardon, American baseball player. Jeffrey James Reardon (born October 1, 1955) is an American former professional baseball relief pitcher who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1979–1994 for the New York Mets, Montreal Expos, Minnesota Twins, and Boston Red Sox, Atlanta Braves, Cincinnati Reds, and New York Yankees.
- 1953 – Pete Falcone, American baseball player. Peter Frank Falcone (born October 1, 1953) is an American former professional baseball pitcher for the San Francisco Giants, St.
- 1952 – Bob Myrick, American baseball player (d. 2012), was a relief pitcher in Major League Baseball. He was the great-nephew of longtime Washington Senators second baseman Buddy Myer.
- 1952 – Earl Slick, American rock guitarist and songwriter. Earl Slick (born Frank Madeloni in Brooklyn, New York, October 1, 1952) is a guitarist best known for his collaborations with David Bowie, John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and Robert Smith.
- 1950 – Mark Helias, American bassist and composer. Mark Helias (born October 1, 1950) is an American jazz double bass player and composer born in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
- 1950 – Randy Quaid, American actor. Randy Randall Rudy Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an American film and television actor and Oscar nominee known for his roles in both serious drama and light comedy.
- 1949 – Isaac Bonewits, American singer-songwriter, liturgist, and author (d. 2010), was an American Neo-Druid who published a number of books on the subject of Neopaganism and magic. He was a public speaker, liturgist, singer and songwriter, and founder of the Neopagan organizations Ár nDraíocht Féin and the Aquarian Anti-Defamation League.
- 1948 – Cub Koda, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2000), was an American rock and roll singer, guitarist, songwriter, disc jockey, music critic, and record compiler. Rolling Stone magazine considered him best known for writing the song "Smokin' in the Boys Room", recorded by Brownsville Station, which reached number 3 on the 1974 Billboard chart.
- 1947 – Buzz Capra, American baseball player and coach. Lee William Capra (born October 1, 1947), is an American former professional baseball pitcher, who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Mets and Atlanta Braves, from 1971 to 1977.
- 1947 – Dave Arneson, American game designer, co-created Dungeons & Dragons (d. 2009), was an American game designer best known for co-developing the first published role-playing game (RPG), Dungeons & Dragons, with Gary Gygax, in the early 1970s. Arneson's early work was fundamental to the development of the genre, developing the concept of the RPG using devices now considered to be archetypical, such as adventuring in "dungeons" and using a neutral judge who doubles as the voice and consciousness of all other characters to develop the storyline.
- 1947 – Stephen Collins, American actor and director. Since then, Collins has played the roles of Dayton King on the ABC TV series No Ordinary Family and Gene Porter in the television series Revolution, father of Elizabeth Mitchell's character, Rachel Matheson.
- 1945 – Donny Hathaway, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (d. 1979), was an American soul singer, keyboardist, songwriter, and arranger. Hathaway has been described as a "soul legend" by Rolling Stone.
- 1945 – Rod Carew, Panamanian-American baseball player and coach. Rodney Cline Carew (born October 1, 1945) is a former Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman, second baseman and coach of Panamanian descent.
- 1943 – Jerry Martini, American saxophonist. Martini (born October 1, 1942) is an American musician, best known for being the saxophonist for Sly and the Family Stone.
- 1942 – Herb Fame, American R&B singer. Herb Fame (born October 1, 1942) has remained a constant as "Herb" since the duo was created in 1966; seven different women have filled the role of "Peaches", most notably Francine "Peaches" Hurd Barker (April 28, 1947 – August 13, 2005), the original "Peaches" who lent her nickname to the duo, and Linda Greene, the third "Peaches", who appeared on the duo's biggest hits "Shake Your Groove Thing" (1978) and "Reunited" (1979).
- 1940 – Marc Savoy, American accordion player, created the Cajun accordion. Marc Savoy (/sɑːˈvwɑː/ sah-vwah) (b. near Eunice, Louisiana, United States, October 1, 1940) is an American musician, and builder and player of the Cajun accordion.
- 1940 – Phyllis Chesler, American feminist psychologist, and author of the best-seller, Women and Madness (1972). Phyllis Chesler (born October 1, 1940) is an American writer, psychotherapist, and professor emerita of psychology and women's studies at the College of Staten Island (CUNY).
- 1939 – George Archer, American golfer (d. 2005), was an American professional golfer who won 13 events on the PGA Tour, including one major championship, the Masters in 1969.
- 1938 – Mary McFadden, American fashion designer. Mary McFadden (born 1938 in New York City) is an American art collector, editor, fashion designer, and writer.
- 1938 – Stella Stevens, American actress and director. Stella Stevens (born Estelle Eggleston; October 1, 1938) is an American film, television, and stage actress.
- 1935 – Walter De Maria, American sculptor and drummer (d. 2013), was an American artist, sculptor, illustrator and composer, who lived and worked in New York City. Walter de Maria's artistic practice is connected with Minimal art, Conceptual art, and Land art of the 1960s.
- 1932 – Albert Collins, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1993), was an American electric blues guitarist and singer with a distinctive guitar style. He was noted for his powerful playing and his use of altered tunings and a capo.
- 1931 – Alan Wagner, American radio host and critic (d. 2007), was an American television executive, radio personality, writer, and opera historian and critic. He served as the East Coast vice president of programming at CBS from 1976 to 1982.
- 1929 – Bonnie Owens, American singer-songwriter (d. 2006), was an American country music singer who was married to Buck Owens and later Merle Haggard.
- 1929 – Grady Chapman, American singer (d. 2011), was best known as the American lead singer of doo wop group The Robins.
- 1928 – George Peppard, American actor (d. 1994), was an American film and television actor.
- 1927 – Sherman Glenn Finesilver, American lawyer and judge (d. 2006), was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Colorado.
- 1927 – Tom Bosley, American actor (d. 2010), was an American actor, television personality and entertainer. Bosley is best known for portraying Howard Cunningham on the 1970s ABC sitcom Happy Days, and the title character on the NBC/ABC series Father Dowling Mysteries.
- 1924 – Bob Geigel, American wrestler and promoter (d. 2014), was an American professional wrestling promoter and professional wrestler. He operated the Kansas City, Missouri-based Heart of America Sports Attractions promotion from 1963 to 1986, and served three terms as the president of the National Wrestling Alliance from 1978 to 1980, 1982 to 1985, and 1986 to 1987.
- 1924 – Jimmy Carter, American lieutenant and politician, 39th President of the United States, Nobel Prize laureate. Since leaving the presidency, Carter has remained active in the private sector; in 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.
- 1924 – Roger Williams, American pianist (d. 2011), was a Puritan minister, theologian, and author who founded Providence Plantations, which became the Colony of Rhode Island. He was a staunch advocate for religious freedom, separation of church and state, and fair dealings with American Indians, and he was one of the first abolitionists.
- 1924 – William Rehnquist, American lawyer and jurist, 16th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 2005), was an American jurist and lawyer who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986 and then as Chief Justice from 1986 until his death in 2005. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states.
- 1922 – Chen-Ning Yang, Chinese-American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate. Yang Chen-Ning or Yang Zhenning (Chinese: 杨振宁; born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese theoretical physicist who made significant contributions to statistical mechanics, integrable systems, gauge theory, and both particle physics and condensed matter physics.
- 1921 – James Whitmore, American actor (d. 2009), was an American film, theatre, and television actor. During his career, Whitmore won three of the four EGOT honors: a Tony, a Grammy, and an Emmy.
- 1920 – David Herbert Donald, American historian and author (d. 2009), was an American historian, best known for his 1995 biography of Abraham Lincoln. He twice won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography for earlier works; he published more than 30 books on United States political and literary figures and the history of the American South.
- 1920 – Walter Matthau, American actor (d. 2000), was an American actor and comedian. He is best known for his film roles opposite Jack Lemmon, playing Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple, (1968) and its 1998 sequel, The Odd Couple II, and Max Goldman in Grumpy Old Men (1993) and its sequel, Grumpier Old Men (1995).
- 1915 – Jerome Bruner, American psychologist and author (d. 2016), was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology. Bruner was a senior research fellow at the New York University School of Law.
- 1914 – Daniel J. Boorstin, American historian, lawyer, and author, 12th Librarian of Congress (d. 2004), was an American historian at the University of Chicago who wrote on many topics in American and world history. He was appointed the twelfth Librarian of the United States Congress in 1975 and served until 1987.
- 1913 – Harry Lookofsky, American violinist and producer (d. 1998), was an American jazz violinist. He was also the father of keyboardist-songwriter Michael Brown, who most notably was a founding member of The Left Banke and Stories.
- 1911 – Irwin Kostal, American songwriter, screenwriter, and publisher (d. 1994), was an American musical arranger of films and an orchestrator of Broadway musicals.
- 1910 – Bonnie Parker, American criminal (d. 1934). Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910 – May 23, 1934) and Clyde Champion Barrow (March 24, 1909 – May 23, 1934) were an American criminal couple who traveled the Central United States with their gang during the Great Depression, known for their bank robberies although they preferred to rob small stores or rural gas stations.
- 1909 – Sam Yorty, American captain and politician, 37th Mayor of Los Angeles (d. 1998), was an American politician from Los Angeles, California. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the California State Assembly, but he is most remembered for his turbulent three terms as the 37th Mayor of Los Angeles from 1961 to 1973.
- 1903 – Vladimir Horowitz, Ukrainian-American pianist and composer (d. 1989), was an American classical pianist and composer born in the Russian Empire. He was acclaimed for his virtuoso technique, his tone color, and the excitement engendered by his playing.
- 1899 – Ernest Haycox, American author (d. 1950), was an American author of Western fiction.
- 1896 – Ted Healy, American actor and singer-screenwriter (d. 1937), was an American vaudeville performer, comedian, and actor. Though he is chiefly remembered as the creator of the Three Stooges and the style of slapstick comedy that they later made famous, he had a successful stage and film career of his own, and was cited as a formative influence by several later comedy stars.
- 1893 – Cliff Friend, American pianist and songwriter (d. 1974), was an accomplished songwriter and pianist. A member of Tin Pan Alley, Friend co-wrote several hits including "Lovesick Blues", "My Blackbirds Are Bluebirds Now" and "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down", also known as the theme song to the Looney Tunes cartoon series.
- 1885 – Louis Untermeyer, American poet, anthologist, critic (d. 1977), was an American poet, anthologist, critic, and editor. He was appointed the fourteenth Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1961.
- 1881 – William Boeing, American engineer and businessman, founded the Boeing Company (d. 1956), was an American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company in 1916.
- 1832 – Caroline Harrison, American educator, 24th First Lady of the United States (d. 1892), was a teacher of music, the wife of Benjamin Harrison and mother of two surviving children; after his election as President of the United States, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1889 until her death.
- 1832 – Henry Clay Work, American composer and songwriter (d. 1884). Work was born in Middletown, Connecticut, to Alanson and Aurelia (Forbes) Work.
- 1808 – Mary Anna Custis Lee, American wife of Robert E. Lee (d. 1873), was the great-granddaughter of Martha Custis Washington and wife of Robert E. Lee, the prominent career military officer who commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War.
- 1712 – William Shippen, American physician and politician (d. 1801), was an American physician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was also a civic and educational leader who represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress.
- 1507 – Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Italian architect, designed the Church of the Gesù (d. 1573), was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome.
- 2017 – Dave Strader, American sportscaster (b. 1955)
- 2015 – Don Edwards, American soldier, lawyer, and politician (b. 1915)
- 2015 – Jacob Pressman, American rabbi and academic, co-founded American Jewish University (b. 1919)
- 2014 – José Martínez, Cuban-American baseball player and coach (b. 1942)
- 2013 – Arnold Burns, American lawyer and politician, 21st United States Deputy Attorney General (b. 1930)
- 2013 – Imero Fiorentino, American lighting designer (b. 1928)
- 2013 – Jim Rountree, American football player and coach (b. 1936)
- 2013 – Tom Clancy, American author (b. 1947)
- 2012 – Mark R. Kravitz, American lawyer and judge (b. 1950)
- 2008 – John Biddle, American cinematographer (b. 1925)
- 2007 – Al Oerter, American discus thrower (b. 1936)
- 2006 – Jerald Tanner, American author and activist (b. 1938)
- 2004 – Richard Avedon, American photographer (b. 1923)
- 2002 – Walter Annenberg, American publisher and diplomat, United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (b. 1908)
- 1997 – Jerome H. Lemelson, American engineer and philanthropist (b. 1923)
- 1990 – Curtis LeMay, American general (b. 1906)
- 1986 – Archie League, American air traffic controller (b. 1907)
- 1985 – E. B. White, American essayist and journalist (b. 1899)
- 1984 – Walter Alston, American baseball player and manager (b. 1911)
- 1975 – Al Jackson, Jr., American drummer, songwriter, and producer (b. 1935)
- 1961 – Ludwig Bemelmans, Italian-American author and illustrator (b. 1898)
- 1955 – Charles Christie, American film producer, founded Christie Film Company (b. 1880)
- 1953 – John Marin, American painter (b. 1870)
- 1885 – John Light Atlee, American physician and surgeon (b. 1799)
- 1864 – Rose O'Neal Greenhow, American spy (b. 1817)